Volcanism, calderas and magmas of the Alicudi composite volcano (western Aeolian archipelago)
F. Lucchi, A. Peccerillo, C. A. Tranne, P. L. Rossi, M. L. Frezzotti, C. Donati, 2013. "Volcanism, calderas and magmas of the Alicudi composite volcano (western Aeolian archipelago)", The Aeolian Islands Volcanoes, F. Lucchi, A. Peccerillo, J. Keller, C. A. Tranne, P. L. Rossi
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The Alicudi composite volcano (western Aeolian archipelago) was constructed between c. 106 and 28 ka by lava flows, domes and strombolian scoriae erupted during six Eruptive Epochs, interrupted by periods of dormancy and three caldera-type collapses in the summit area. Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a (81 ka) terrace deposits and widespread Brown Tuffs of external origin are recognized and provide important marker beds for regional stratigraphic correlations. Volcanism was of central type, under control of the summit caldera collapses with negligible influence of regional tectonic trends. Alicudi rocks are basaltic to high-K andesitic and have the most primitive petrological compositions (high MgO, Ni, Cr contents), the lowest Sr–O and the highest Nd–He isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr=0.70352 to 0.70410; 143Nd/144Nd=0.51289 to 0.51279; δ18O=+5.0 to 5.6; 3He/4He–R/Ra=c. 6.5 to 7.1) over the entire Aeolian archipelago. Their composition and variation through time are the result of polybaric crystal–liquid fractionation of parental calc-alkaline basalts to give basaltic andesitic and andesitic derivative melts. These underwent crustal assimilation during ascent, with basalts being contaminated more strongly than andesitic magmas. Sr–Nd–Pb isotopes suggest source metasomatic modification by fluids from an oceanic-type slab, with a minor role for subducted sediments.
The 10 000 scale geological map of Alicudi is included on the DVD in the printed book and can also be accessed online at http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/Memoir37-electronic. Also included is a geochemical dataset for Alicudi.
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The Aeolian Islands form one of the most active geological structures in the Mediterranean area, comprising a number of active (Stromboli and Vulcano) and dormant (Panarea and Lipari) volcanoes. They have attracted the attention of scientists in modern and historical times and are the cradle of the scientific discipline of volcanology.
This Memoir provides information on geological features of the Aeolian Islands volcanoes at a regional scale and for each island. The stratigraphy, structural evolution, eruptive and magmatic history of the Islands is presented, along with the geodynamic setting of the Aeolian volcanism and implications for magma origin and evolution processes. Particular focus is given to the active and dormant volcanoes and the related natural hazards.
It includes new 1:10 000-scale geological maps of the Aeolian Islands and bathymetric maps of sectors of the Aeolian archipelago, together with an extended dataset of rock compositions.