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a. All fluid inclusion studies to date suggest that Na-Ca-Cl brines are the universal ore fluids for Zn, Pb, and some other metals.

b. Those natural waters highest in heavy metal content are also Na-Ca-Cl brines. The Salton Sea geothermal brine is a particularly outstanding example; oilfield waters and the recently discovered Red Sea geothermal brines also support this view.

c Known examples of Na-Ca-Cl brines are stoichiometrically richer in sulfophile metals than in sulfide; the metals evidently are present as chloride complexes, stable at high temperature even in the presence of some sulfide. Mechanisms for locally supplying sulfide in quantities sufficient to form ore deposits have been proposed by Lovering, White, Barton, and others.

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