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The three orefields in the English Pennines contain strata-controlled epigenetic deposits of lead, zinc, fluorine, barium minerals. They are localized in favorable shelf-facies Carboniferous sediments, resting on basement "highs" and gently domed. Lateral zonation of minerals is strikingly developed, in part, possibly wholly, controlled by falling temperature, which according to fluid inclusions measurements by F. J. Sawkins reached over 200° C at the focal centers. Hot juvenile solutions are considered to have been involved; possible mixing with connate brines is noted and the possibility of deriving some elements by leaching of wall-rocks is examined.

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