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Abstract

The various textures observed are described and genetically interpreted on the basis of examples from the eastern Calcareous Alps (Kalkalps), from the German Muschelkalk. and from the Schiefergebirge (the Slate Mountains) of the German Rhineland.

In the eastern Alps and in Wiesloch sedimentary ore is found in almost every deposit; this occurs associated with dolomite-rich tuffaceous layers or in some such interruption of the normal lime sedimentation, generally apparent in the deeper parts of the old sea floor. Especially noteworthy are sedimentary breccias which also contain ore fragments; alternating deposits of ore and rock; and transgressions of younger limestone beds over older ore sediments with partial reworking of the ore. Early diagenetic ore deposits are not unusual and are not always easy to differentiate from sedimentary ore deposits, especially if they are associated with dolomitization and concretions. Completely different from these are hydatogenetic ores, occurring mainly in tectonic crevices or solution cavities or as impregnations or. metasomatically (i.e., as replacements), mainly in conjunction with a tectonic episode. In the Rhenish Schiefergebirge the older ore phase should be grouped with the magmatic lead-zinc veins, whereas in the Alps and in Wiesloch ore origin is a question of redeposition by deep waters. Above all. in the Alps. signs of solution in the older sedimentary ores are not infrequent. Unique in the Rhenish Schiefergebirge are the Karst solution cavities bearing sulfidic Fe, Zn, and Pb ores, plus barite and bituminous clays, in place of the normal paragenesis of Mn and Fe oxides and brightly colored clays. Ores in younger cave sediments also occasionally are found in the Alps.

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