The Homestake Iron-Formation-Hosted Gold Deposit, Lead: Road Log For Surface Tour
R. L. Bachman, S. W. Caddey, 1990. "The Homestake Iron-Formation-Hosted Gold Deposit, Lead: Road Log For Surface Tour", Metallogeny of Gold in the Black Hills, South Dakota, Colin J. Paterson, Alvis L. Lisenbee, Tommy B. Thompson
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Gold in the Open Cut area was first discovered by two Frenchmen, Moses and Frederick Manuel, on April 9, 1876 (Irving, 1904). A quartz outcrop located somewhere near the center of the current Open Cut (see frontispiece) was the site of the original Homestake lode discovery in 1876 (see Frontispiece for this volume). By the following year the numerous claims filed in the area had been consolidated into four large companies. Irving further states: "Not long after the mines opened it was found advisable to work them under a single management, and as time went on the Homestake Company came either into control or into actual possession of the other properties...”
The gold ore was free-milling, and by the summer of 1878, 80 stamps were in operation in mills near large open cuts on the steep hillside. By 1880, a total of 740 stamps were crushing 2 to 3 tons of ore each per day. The old headframe of the B & M No. 2 underground mine, one of the early underground operations on the Homestake gold deposit, remains beneath the hill crest. Mining in the Open Cut was renewed as a supplemental surface operation in 1984, with 1989 gold production at 2678 kg (86,400 oz).