Geologic Setting, Black Hills, South Dakota
Jack A. Redden, Alvis L. Lisenbee, 1990. "Geologic Setting, Black Hills, South Dakota", Metallogeny of Gold in the Black Hills, South Dakota, Colin J. Paterson, Alvis L. Lisenbee, Tommy B. Thompson
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The extensive deposits of gold in the Black Hills which have been mined for more than 100 years led to early investigations of the geology and especially the geology as related to the gold deposits (Newton and Jenney, 1880, Van Hise, 1890). Basically the Black Hills consists of an elongate dome of Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks unconformably overlying a core of Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks. The core is largely Proterozoic in age and only about one percent is Archean. In the northern Black Hills are sizable areas of Tertiary igneous rocks representing shallow intrusions in Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks or the roots of such intrusions in the Precambrian rocks.
The dominantly stable platform-setting Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks were uplifted during the Laramide orogeny and erosion scoured into the Precambrian basement so that the physiography of the early Oligocene was similar to the present. Oligocene White River deposits then blanketed much of the dome but subsequent erosion has largely removed these deposits.