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The stratigraphic succession in the Ellsworth Mountains includes strata from Cambrian to Permian in age. No definite evidence of major unconformities in the Ellsworth succession is known, and it is possible that continuous deposition took place from Cambrian to Permian time.

The oldest stratigraphic unit, the Heritage Group, was deposited in Middle to Late Cambrian time. More than half of the 13,000+-m-thick stratigraphic succession of the Ellsworth Mountains was deposited during this time interval. Basic igneous volcanism and tectonic activity occurred in both the source and accumulation areas throughout the deposition of this group. Shallow-marine conditions prevailed during the deposition of the overlying 3,000-m-thick Upper Cambrian to Devonian Crashsite Group. This group indicates a period of tectonic stability that continued through the remainder of Ellsworth Mountains sedimentation. Deposition of the glaciomarine Permo-Carboniferous Whiteout Conglomerate and the Permian Polarstar Formation completed the sedimentary sequence.

Major deformation of the Ellsworth Mountains sedimentary succession, the Ellsworth (Gondwanide) Orogeny, took place in Late Permian or early Mesozoic time. The original location of these rocks is unclear, but they probably accumulated near the margin of East Antarctica. With the breakup of Gondwanaland, the Ellsworth Mountains, and their southern neighbors likely comprised a microplate that translated and rotated to its present position sometime in late Mesozoic or early Cenozoic time. The uplift of the mountains may have accompanied these postulated movements.

The geomorphic evolution of the Ellsworth Mountains in Cretaceous and Cenozoic time includes the development of an integrated stream valley pattern and, later, valley and continental glaciation, followed by moderate deglaciation.

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