In an anniversary volume, it seems appropriate to acknowledge my special debt to some who pioneered research in mining geophysics. From 1924 until the depression of 1930, the United Verde Copper Company, under leadership of its President, Robert E. Tally,* and H. deWitt Smith, supported a comprehensive program of research in mining geophysics directed by Dr. Max Mason, then Professor of Physics at the University of Wisconsin. To these, as well as to my associates in this program, B. B. Gauld, D. L. Hay,* C. B. Aiken* and D. C. Slichter, I wish to record my gratitude. The encouragement provided in those uncertain years of mining geophysics by the New Jersey Zinc Company and especially by the stimulating association with Walter O. Borcherdt* of that company, is also recalled with gratitude and pleasure. There will be occasion later to acknowledge the recent generous help from others who have furnished specific material for this paper. But I wish to make special note of a debt to those who ventured to support research in mining geophysics in a day when the gamble must have seemed great.
During recent decades the mining industry has been facing a great transition in prospecting. The transition is from the pioneer era when discoveries in outcrop were relatively easy, and numerous, to the present, when many common metals must be sought in blind ore bodies which show no trace at the surface. In petroleum prospecting this transition is now far along. Exploration for concealed oil structures at
Figures & Tables
Fiftieth Anniversary Volume: 1905-1955
About the turn of this century interest in economic geology had reached a high level in North America. The thoughtful paper in 1893 by J. H. L. Vogt, of Norway, on injected igneous deposits derived from an igneous source by the process of magmatic differentiation, which was also advanced to account for hot mineralizing waters, drew attention once more to the earlier ideas of Elie de Beaumont. Then came the classical paper by Franz Posepny on “The Genesis of Ore Deposits” delivered before the American Institute of Mining Engineers in Chicago in 1893. This created a profound impression on American thought and stimulated a heated controversial discussion by S. F. Emmons, Van Hise, J. F. Kemp, Waldemar Lindgren, and W. H. Weed in the years 1901 to 1903, on the respective merits of heated meteoric waters versus hot juvenile waters in the genesis of ore deposits. In 1901 also came the startling new concept of secondary sulfide enrichment proposed by S. F. Emmons, Van Hise and W. H. Weed. These papers and discussions resulted in the Posepny Volume on The Genesis of Ore Deposits sponsored in 1901 by the American Institute of Mining Engineers. Geologists were rocked by the influx of new concepts and ideas bearing on the genesis of ore deposits. A forum was needed where prevailing ideas could be thrashed out and new ones presented. An idea was breeding that was shortly to give rise to another new concept—a journal of economic geology in the English language.