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A new generation of hybrid powder diffraction instruments will provide increased access to high-energy (>30 keV) synchrotron X-rays and facilitate a variety of diffraction experiments that are either not possible or practical using conventional diffractometers in the home laboratory. The coupling of a beam with increased brightness, tunability, low divergence, and low emittance with the availability of fast area detectors, opens up the possibilities of new classes of experiments including: (1) PDF studies of nano-minerals and the testing of structure models; (2) micro-powder diffraction from heterogeneous mineral composites; (3) the development of whole nanoparticle models that include core structure, defects, surface reconstruction, and surface-sorbed species to provide more realistic descriptions of nanominerals; (4) in situ and time-resolved studies following the evolution of atomic arrangements in supersaturated solutions and the nano-particulates precipitating from them.

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