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Book Chapter

Clay Surface Catalysis of Formation of Humic Substances: Potential Role of Maillard Reactions

By
Javier M. Gonzalez
Javier M. Gonzalez
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Appalachian Farming Systems Research Center, 1224 Airport Rd., Beaver, WV 25813-9423, USA. E-mail: javier.gonzalez@ars.usda.gov
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Published:
January 01, 2009

Abstract

Clay minerals are important from the agricultural, environmental, and industrial point of view because of their chemical and physical properties. Surface acidity of clays is of special interest given that clays catalyze several chemical organic reactions. In natural systems, research has suggested that clays play important roles in the formation of soil organic matter; however, the mechanisms of formation and the roles of clays are poorly understood and/or often controversial. Although, several different pathways of secondary synthesis leading to the formation of humic substances have been proposed, none are universally accepted (Stevenson, 1982). The Maillard reaction, condensation of reducing sugars and amino acids, is one of the proposed pathways for formation of humic substances that has received relatively little attention. The starting materials of the Maillard reaction exist in soils; the questions are whether, and to what extent, clay minerals catalyze the Maillard reaction in soil environments? The objective of this chapter is to compile a synthesis of published research on the formation of soil organic matter with emphasis on the Maillard reaction as a potential pathway for the formation of humic substances and the role of clay minerals as catalysts for Maillard reactions.

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Contents

Clay Minerals Society Workshop Lectures 16

Carbon Stabilization by Clays in the Environment: Process and Characterization Methods

David A. Laird
David A. Laird
USDA, ARS, National Soil Tilth Laboratory 2110 University Blvd Ames IA 50011-3120 USA
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Javiera Cervini Silva
Javiera Cervini Silva
Instituto de Geografia Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City
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Yona Chen
Yona Chen
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
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Claire Chenu
Claire Chenu
CNRS-UPMC-INRA-AgroParisTech-ENS-ENPC, Grignon, France
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Françoise Elsass
Françoise Elsass
Centre de Géochimie de la Surface, Strasbourg, France
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Javier M. Gonzalez
Javier M. Gonzalez
USDA, ARS, NAA, AFSRC, Beaver, WV, USA
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Michael H.B. Hayes
Michael H.B. Hayes
University of Limerick, Ireland
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David A. Laird
David A. Laird
USDA, ARS, NSTL, Ames, IA, USA
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Alain Plante
Alain Plante
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
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Andre J. Simpson
Andre J. Simpson
University of Toronto at Scarborough, Canada
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Guixue Song
Guixue Song
University of Limerick, Ireland
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Jorge Tarcjotzly
Jorge Tarcjotzly
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
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Michael L. Thompson
Michael L. Thompson
Iowa State University, Ames IA, USA
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I. Virto
I. Virto
CNRS-UPMC-INRA-AgroParisTech-ENS-ENPC, Grignon, France
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Robert L. Wershaw
Robert L. Wershaw
U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO, USA
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Clay Minerals Society
ISBN electronic:
9781881208365
Publication date:
January 01, 2009

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