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Book Chapter

Organo-Mineral Complexes and their Effects on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Soils

By
Yona Chen
Yona Chen
Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel. E-mail: yonachen@agri.huji.ac.il
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Jorge Tarchitzky
Jorge Tarchitzky
Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel. E-mail: yonachen@agri.huji.ac.il
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Published:
January 01, 2009

Abstract

Most arable soils contain 0.1 to 5% organic matter (OM) by weight. The lowest figures represent sandy soils of arid zones, whereas the higher values are typical of clayey temperate zones. The vast majority of these soils are physically and chemically influenced by the OM which they contain. In addition to the nutritional value of the OM, it plays a critical role in the formation and stabilization of soil structure, which in turn produces desired tilth and drainage as well as resistance to erosion.

To a remarkable degree, increased OM can counteract the diverse structure effects that may prevail in either highly sandy or clayey soils. Increasing soil organic matter (SOM) content usually results in a decrease in bulk density and increase of total porosity. Over a wide range of 10 to 60 g organic C per kg soil, a curvilinear decrease in bulk density from 1.7 to 0.8 Mg m−3 has been observed (Franzluebbers et al., 2001). A curvilinear positive dependence between the C content of soils in New Zealand and aggregate stability was also shown by Haynes (2001). Friability of soils, namely, their tendency to form clods that easily crumble into their constituent natural aggregates is most commonly related to OM content as well as aggregate stability and bulk density (Macks et al., 1996).

Soil mineral particles usually aggregate into granular structures. The stability of soil aggregates (or micro-aggregates – the small particle size fraction of the aggregates – see below) is

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Contents

Clay Minerals Society Workshop Lectures 16

Carbon Stabilization by Clays in the Environment: Process and Characterization Methods

David A. Laird
David A. Laird
USDA, ARS, National Soil Tilth Laboratory 2110 University Blvd Ames IA 50011-3120 USA
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Javiera Cervini Silva
Javiera Cervini Silva
Instituto de Geografia Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City
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Yona Chen
Yona Chen
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
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Claire Chenu
Claire Chenu
CNRS-UPMC-INRA-AgroParisTech-ENS-ENPC, Grignon, France
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Françoise Elsass
Françoise Elsass
Centre de Géochimie de la Surface, Strasbourg, France
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Javier M. Gonzalez
Javier M. Gonzalez
USDA, ARS, NAA, AFSRC, Beaver, WV, USA
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Michael H.B. Hayes
Michael H.B. Hayes
University of Limerick, Ireland
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David A. Laird
David A. Laird
USDA, ARS, NSTL, Ames, IA, USA
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Alain Plante
Alain Plante
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
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Andre J. Simpson
Andre J. Simpson
University of Toronto at Scarborough, Canada
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Guixue Song
Guixue Song
University of Limerick, Ireland
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Jorge Tarcjotzly
Jorge Tarcjotzly
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
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Michael L. Thompson
Michael L. Thompson
Iowa State University, Ames IA, USA
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I. Virto
I. Virto
CNRS-UPMC-INRA-AgroParisTech-ENS-ENPC, Grignon, France
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Robert L. Wershaw
Robert L. Wershaw
U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO, USA
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Clay Minerals Society
ISBN electronic:
9781881208365
Publication date:
January 01, 2009

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