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Book Chapter

Structure and Dynamics of Nanocomposite Polymer Electrolytes

By
Evangelos Manias
Evangelos Manias
Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, PennState University 310 Steidle Building, University Park, PA 16802
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;
Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos
Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos
Chemical Engineering, Princeton University, Princton, NJ 085444
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;
David B. Zax
David B. Zax
Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 148533
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;
Emmanuel P Giannelis
Emmanuel P Giannelis
Dept.of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 148533
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Published:
January 01, 2002

Abstract

Improvements in rechargeable, high-energy density batteries are essential for the development of products ranging from zero-emission vehicles to portable electronics. Batteries based on polymer electrolytes are the subject of active R&&D competition worldwide. A key unsolved problem is the design and implementation of lightweight, chemically stable and environmentally benign electrolyte/electrode combinations. Of particular interest are Li+ salts dissolved in flexible polymers like poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, since these systems combine promisingly high ionic conductivities with processability and are conveniently interfaced to high energy density Li electrodes. A serious drawback in these systems has been the precipitous decrease of conductivity (from 10−4 to 10−8 S/cm) at temperatures below the melting temperature, which occurs usually above room temperature. This decrease is due to the formation of crystallites in the polymer matrix that severely impede ionic mobility.

One of the most promising ways to improve the electrochemical performance of polymer electrolytes is by the addition of inorganic fillers (Skaarup et al., 1980; Wieczorek, 1992; Capuano et al., 1991). The resulting composite polymer electrolytes (CPE) display enhanced conductivity, mechanical stability and improved interfacial stability towards electrode materials. Despite the improved properties of CPE, however, their application in rechargeable lithium batteries is still hindered by low ionic conductivity at ambient temperature, low lithium transport number and difficulties in processing.

Polymer nanocomposites represent an alternative to conventional CPE. Because of the significantly reduced phase dimensions of the inorganic and the polymer matrix (1–100 nm), nanocomposites often exhibit new and improved properties, when compared to their

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Contents

Clay Minerals Society Workshop Lectures

Electrochemical Properties of Clays

Alanah Fitch
Alanah Fitch
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Clay Minerals Society
Volume
10
ISBN electronic:
9781881208303
Publication date:
January 01, 2002

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