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Book Chapter

Clays and Electrochemistry: An Introduction

By
Susan Macha
Susan Macha
Department of Chemistry Environmental Studies/Sciences Loyola University Chicago 6525 N. Sheridan Rd. Chicago Il 60626
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;
Scott Baker
Scott Baker
Department of Chemistry Environmental Studies/Sciences Loyola University Chicago 6525 N. Sheridan Rd. Chicago Il 60626
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;
Alanah Fitch
Alanah Fitch
Department of Chemistry Environmental Studies/Sciences Loyola University Chicago 6525 N. Sheridan Rd. Chicago Il 60626
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Published:
January 01, 2002

Abstract

Electrochemistry is a tool that has come of age in the field of clay chemistry. Electrochemistry has been used to monitor transport in natural clay films and in tailored clays films, to measure ion conductivities, to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils, and to remediate organic compounds contaminating soils and clays.

The purpose of this chapter is to outline some of the fundamental concepts used in electrochemistry. We begin with a survey of similar concepts of the electrified clay interface, followed by transport phenomena, and followed by development of the vocabulary used in transient electrochemical techniques. The final sections show how transient methods of electrochemical analysis are applied to representative problems at clay interfaces, and give specific laboratory practices. It is assumed that the reader has a basic knowledge of clay chemistry, so topics related to clay chemistry will be discussed only briefly.

At its simplest, an electrochemical experiment involves an electrified interface with its associated fluids and salts to conduct charge to a second electrified interface. The concepts do not differ from a clay chemist’s understanding of the surface potential of clays and the associated double layer swarm of ions found in a soil matrix.

The clay sheet found within the soil is made up of crystals containing tetrahedral silicates (Si-O) and/or octahedral aluminates (Al-O, Al-OH). Lateral sharing of oxygen atoms in tetrahedra (Figure 1) or octahedrons result in a sheet. Sharing of oxygen atoms between sheets results in a layer. Minerals may consist of one silicate and one aluminate sheet

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Contents

Clay Minerals Society Workshop Lectures

Electrochemical Properties of Clays

Alanah Fitch
Alanah Fitch
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Clay Minerals Society
Volume
10
ISBN electronic:
9781881208303
Publication date:
January 01, 2002

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