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Using Analogies to Enhance Learning in Clay Science

Rule A.C. (2002) Using analogies to enhance learning in clay science: In CMS Workshop Lectures, Vol. 11, Teaching Clay Science, A. Rule and S. Guggenheim, eds. The Clay Mineral Society, Aurora, CO, 71-92.

Audrey C. Rule
Audrey C. Rule
Department of Curriculum and InstructionState University of New York at OswegoOswego, New York 13126, U.S.A.
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January 01, 2002


In “A Vision for What Science Education Should Be Like for the First 25 Years of a New Millennium” (2000), Robert Yager, former president of seven national associations, presents a six-domain model of science teaching that casts science in a broader perspective than the traditionally-held practice of using textbooks and structured activities. These domains (Table 1) support the science education reform movements encompassed by the Benchmarks for Science Literacy (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1993) and the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996). For a discussion of these standards, see “Learning Theory and Standards Applied to Clay Science” by Rule (2002) in this volume. Although scientific knowledge (Domain I) and process skills (Domain II) have been a focus of American science education for some time, other domains are often neglected. Of particular interest is the domain of creativity (Domain III). Yager states (p. 337) “Most science programs view a science program as something to be done to students to help them learn a given body of information. Little formal attention has been given in science programs to the development of students’ imagination and creative thinking… Much research and development has been done on developing students’ abilities in this creative domain, but little of this has been purposely incorporated into science programs… Attention to these features approaches real science far more than remembering details or performance skills.”

To determine how components of Domain III (Creativity) might be incorporated into

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Clay Minerals Society Workshop Lectures

Teaching clay science

Audrey C. Rule
Audrey C. Rule
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Stephen Guggenheim
Stephen Guggenheim
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Clay Minerals Society
ISBN electronic:
Publication date:
January 01, 2002




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