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Learning Theory and National Standards Applied to Teaching Clay Science

Rule A.C. (2002) Learning Theory and National Standards Applied to Teaching Clay Science: In CMS Workshop Lectures, Vol. 11, Teaching Clay Science, A. Rule and S. Guggenheim, eds., The Clay Mineral Society, Aurora, CO, 1-20.

Audrey C. Rule
Audrey C. Rule
Department of Curriculum and InstructionState University of New York at OswegoOswego, New York 13126, U. S. A.
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January 01, 2002


During the past fifteen years, a significant movement to reform science education has occurred in response to the growing need for a scientifically literate citizenry who are prepared for a technologically advanced, globally competitive, democratic society. In an effort to fuel and guide this transformation, standards and benchmarks (statements of what students should know at certain points in their education) for science education have been developed from current theory and research concerning how humans learn. This chapter first examines the currently accepted Constructivist approach to learning and research that informs the pedagogy upon which these education reforms are based. Then, two important science reform documents, the Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1993) and the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996), both developed for kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12) students, will be examined for extension and application to teaching clay science at the college level. Chapters following this chapter will provide examples of application of these principles to effective teaching of clay science.

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Clay Minerals Society Workshop Lectures

Teaching clay science

Audrey C. Rule
Audrey C. Rule
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Stephen Guggenheim
Stephen Guggenheim
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Clay Minerals Society
ISBN electronic:
Publication date:
January 01, 2002




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