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Forces between clay particles influence many industrial, geological, geotechnical and pedological processes. They include the van der Waals' force, the Coulomb force, the Born force, the double-layer force and the hydration or structural force. General discussions of these forces have been published by Verwey and Overbeek (1948), Derjaguin et al. (1987), Israelachvili (1974), Ninham (1981, 1985) and, elsewhere in this volume, by Güven. Therefore, the author will not discuss them further but will focus his attention on the roles they play in the processes of flocculation, viscous flow and swelling. Swelling will get the most emphasis because of the author's special interest in it. In particular, an attempt will be made to assess the relative contributions of double-layer and hydration forces to the swelling pressure and, thereby, facilitate the resolution of a long-standing controversy.

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