Giovanna Della Porta, 2015. "Carbonate build-ups in lacustrine, hydrothermal and fluvial settings: comparing depositional geometry, fabric types and geochemical signature", Microbial Carbonates in Space and Time: Implications for Global Exploration and Production, D. W. J. Bosence, K. A. Gibbons, D. P. Le Heron, W. A. Morgan, T. Pritchard, B. A. Vining
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Carbonate build-ups in lakes, hydrothermal and fluvial settings are characterized by distinctive geometry, spatial distribution, fabrics and geochemical signature but also by some comparable features. Lake margin bioherms form continuous belts for hundreds of metres to kilometres, subparallel to shorelines. Sublacustrine spring mounds are spaced at hundreds of metres to kilometres and aligned along faults. Hydrothermal travertine mounds and aprons with planar clinoforms or terraced slopes are controlled by faults, thermal water discharge and substrate topography. Fluvial tufa barrages, cascades and terraced slopes are controlled by climate, vegetation and substrate gradient. The wide spectrum of carbonate microfabrics ranges from clotted peloidal micrite and laminated boundstone to crystalline dendrite cementstone. Non-marine carbonate microfabrics cannot be linked to specific depositional environments, and are not deterministic proxies for the interpretation of build-up architecture. Microfabric associations can be indicative, but not exclusive, of specific depositional environments and geometry. Stable isotope geochemistry is a useful tool to distinguish between hydrothermal, karstic freshwater and evaporative lake carbonates. Carbonate precipitation results from a continuum of abiotic and biologically influenced/induced processes in settings where carbonate supersaturation is largely driven by physico-chemical mechanisms and microbial biofilms, even if acting as passive low-energy surface sites for nucleation, are widely present.
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Microbial Carbonates in Space and Time: Implications for Global Exploration and Production
Microbial carbonates (microbialites) are remarkable sedimentary deposits. They have the longest geological range of any type of biogenic limestones, form in the greatest range of different sedimentary environments, oxygenated the Earth’s atmosphere and produce and, furthermore, store large volumes of hydrocarbons. This Special Publication provides significant contributions at a pivotal time in our understanding of microbial carbonates when their economic importance has become established and the results of many research programmes are coming to fruition.
It is the first book to focus on the economic aspects of microbialites and in particular the giant pre-salt discoveries offshore Brazil. The volume contains papers on the processes involved in the formation of both ancient and modern microbialites and the diversity of style in microbial carbonate build-ups. Structures and fabrics from both marine and non-marine settings are discussed from throughout the geological record.