Sedimentation in the Papaghni Group of rocks in the Papaghni sub-basin of the Proterozoic Cuddapah Basin, India
Published:January 01, 2015
G. Chakrabarti, P. G. Eriksson, D. Shome, 2015. "Sedimentation in the Papaghni Group of rocks in the Papaghni sub-basin of the Proterozoic Cuddapah Basin, India", Precambrian Basins of India: Stratigraphic and Tectonic Context, R. Mazumder, P. G. Eriksson
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The Gulcheru Quartzite (30–200 m thick) overlies Archaean basement rocks, and comprises an impersistent conglomerate at the base of more widespread quartzites, with shale and ferruginous interbeds. The overlying Vempalle Formation (≤1500 m) comprises mainly stromatolitic carbonates, lesser cherts and mudrocks. Together, these two units make up the Palaeoproterozoic Papaghni Group, which displays an arcuate outcrop belt in the SW Cuddapah Basin, bearing no obvious relationship to the tectonic grain in the basement lithologies. Facies defined in the Gulcheru Quartzite are ascribed to initial alluvial fans, which transitioned into a shallow-marine coastline and shelf, as transgression occurred under overall thermal subsidence, possibly related to post-plume thermal relaxation. The shallow siliciclastic Gulcheru shelf is inferred to have evolved to a stromatolitic ramp that accommodated deposition of the Vempalle chemical sediments. The abrupt vertical transition from clastic to carbonate deposits is ascribed to rapid sea-level rise. Late-stage shoreline progradation during uppermost Vempalle times and concomitant clastic inflows terminated the carbonate factory.
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Precambrian Basins of India: Stratigraphic and Tectonic Context
This Memoir provides a comprehensive review of the Precambrian basins of the four Archaean nuclei of India (Dharwar, Bastar, Singhbhum and Aravalli-Bundelkhand), encompassing descriptions of the time–space distribution of sedimentary–volcanic successions, the interrelationship between tectonics and sedimentation, and basin histories. Studies of 22 basins within the framework of an international basin classification scheme deepen an understanding of the basin architecture especially for cratonic basins. Most Indian sedimentary successions formed as cratonic to extensional-margin rift and thermal-sag basins, some reflecting mantle plume movement, subcrustal heating or far-field stress. This Memoir shows that Phanerozoic plate-tectonic and sequence stratigraphic principles can be applied to the Precambrian basins of large Archaean provinces. The differences between the stratigraphic architecture of the Indian Precambrian and examples of Phanerozoic basin-fill successions elsewhere are ascribed to variable rates and intensities of the controls on accommodation and sediment supply, and changes inherent in the evolution of the hydrosphere–atmosphere and biosphere systems.