Proterozoic Vindhyan Basin: configuration and evolution
P. K. Bose, S. Sarkar, N. G. Das, S. Banerjee, A. Mandal, N. Chakraborty, 2015. "Proterozoic Vindhyan Basin: configuration and evolution", Precambrian Basins of India: Stratigraphic and Tectonic Context, R. Mazumder, P. G. Eriksson
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This chapter attempts an understanding of the Proterozoic Vindhyan Basin history in the broad framework of central India. Although the entire Vindhyan Supergroup is within the scope of this work, particular attention is paid to the little-known northwestern fringe exposures. Distinctive facies assemblages and diverse palaeocurrents in these exposures of the Lower Vindhyan play a pivotal role in the interpretation. Analysis of outcrop and subsurface data that extend under the Gangetic alluvium to the north of the Vindhyan outcrops further supports the hypothesis that an east–west-elongated basement ridge initially separated the master Vindhyan Basin from smaller contemporary basins to the north. Deposition took place in isolated lacustrine and fluvial basins north of the divide and largely in a marine realm south. Dextral shear accompanying rifting generated ridges that criss-crossed the Lower Vindhyan seafloor to the south. The uniform character of the Upper Vindhyan throughout, nevertheless, testifies to later drowning of the divide and unification of all of the basins as a consequence of regional tilt northward. However, the extended Vindhyan Sea was restricted by a second east–west-elongated ridge from merger with the contemporary Proterozoic sea further north, disparate sediments of which have been encountered in a few drill cores only.
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This Memoir provides a comprehensive review of the Precambrian basins of the four Archaean nuclei of India (Dharwar, Bastar, Singhbhum and Aravalli-Bundelkhand), encompassing descriptions of the time–space distribution of sedimentary–volcanic successions, the interrelationship between tectonics and sedimentation, and basin histories. Studies of 22 basins within the framework of an international basin classification scheme deepen an understanding of the basin architecture especially for cratonic basins. Most Indian sedimentary successions formed as cratonic to extensional-margin rift and thermal-sag basins, some reflecting mantle plume movement, subcrustal heating or far-field stress. This Memoir shows that Phanerozoic plate-tectonic and sequence stratigraphic principles can be applied to the Precambrian basins of large Archaean provinces. The differences between the stratigraphic architecture of the Indian Precambrian and examples of Phanerozoic basin-fill successions elsewhere are ascribed to variable rates and intensities of the controls on accommodation and sediment supply, and changes inherent in the evolution of the hydrosphere–atmosphere and biosphere systems.