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Book Chapter

Classification of basins, with special reference to Proterozoic examples

By
P. A. Allen
P. A. Allen
Department of Earth Sciences and Engineering, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK
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P. G. Eriksson
P. G. Eriksson
Department of Geology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa
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F. F. Alkmim
F. F. Alkmim
Departamento de Geologia, Escola de Minas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Morro do Cruzeiro, 35.400.000 Ouro Preto MG, Brazil
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P. G. Betts
P. G. Betts
School of Geosciences, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
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O. Catuneanu
O. Catuneanu
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, 1–26 Earth Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E3
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R. Mazumder
R. Mazumder
School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Kensington, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 Australia
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Q. Meng
Q. Meng
Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
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G. M. Young
G. M. Young
Department of Earth Sciences, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5B7
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Published:
January 01, 2015

Abstract

Basin classification rests on a plate tectonic foundation, highlighting lithospheric substrate, proximity to plate margin and relative motion of the nearest plate boundary. Major mechanisms for regional subsidence and uplift are subdivided into isostatic, flexural and dynamic groups. Basin-forming mechanisms and basin types do not exhibit simple cause-and-effect relationships, but rather reflect a matrix-type relationship. Different basin types have different spans of existence, with generally shorter life spans related to more tectonically active settings. Many ‘polyhistory’ basins, composed of two or more megasequences, reflect a long evolution dominated by different basin-forming and basin-modifying mechanisms. The supercontinent cycle is marked by distinct sets of basin types, developed during successive phases of the cycle. Major classification schemes are reviewed briefly, before surveying the range of basin types represented in the Proterozoic of several key cratonic areas. Basins examined encompass almost the entire Neoarchaean–Neoproterozoic period. All of these basins have a relatively long history of preservation, which can be tied to the essentially continental character of their basement rocks and concomitant enhanced ‘survivability’. Their preservation thus underlines the longevity and inherent stability of the continental lithosphere. The distinction between basin occurrence over geological time and preferential preservation is important when viewing the geological record.

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Contents

Geological Society, London, Memoirs

Precambrian Basins of India: Stratigraphic and Tectonic Context

R. Mazumder
R. Mazumder
University of New South Wales, Australia
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P. G. Eriksson
P. G. Eriksson
University of Pretoria, South Africa
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Geological Society of London
Volume
43
ISBN electronic:
9781862397194
Publication date:
January 01, 2015

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