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Abstract

Field X comprises a giant Palaeogene limestone reservoir with a long production history. An original geomodel used for history matching employed a permeability transform derived directly from core data. However, the resulting permeability model required major modifications, such as horizontal and vertical permeability multipliers, in order to match the historic data. The rationale behind these multipliers is not well understood and not based on geological constraints. Our study employs an integrated near-wellbore upscaling workflow to identify and evaluate the geological heterogeneities that enhanced reservoir permeability. Key among these heterogeneities are mechanically weak zones of solution-enhanced porosity, leached stylolites and associated tension-gashes, which were developed during late-stage diagenetic corrosion. The results of this investigation confirmed the key role of diagenetic corrosion in enhancing the permeability of the reservoir. Insights gained from the available production history, in conjunction with petrophysical data analysis, substantiated the characterization of this solution-enhanced permeability. This study provided valuable insights into the means by which a satisfactory field-level history match for a giant carbonate reservoir can be achieved. Instead of applying artificial permeability multipliers that do not necessarily capture the impacts of geological heterogeneities, our method incorporates representations of fine-scale heterogeneities. Improving the characterization of permeability distribution in the field provided an updated and geologically consistent permeability model that could contribute to the ongoing development plans to maximize incremental oil recovery.

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