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Abstract

Many carbonate rocks are composed of layers and contain fracture sets that cause the hydraulic, mechanical and seismic properties to be anisotropic. Co-located fractures and layers in carbonate rock lead to competing wave-scattering mechanisms: both layers and parallel fractures generate compressional-wave (P-wave) guided modes. The guided modes generated by the fractures may obscure the presence of the layers. In this study, we examine compressional-wave guided modes for two cases: wave guiding by fractures in a layered medium with sub-wavelength layer thickness; and wave guiding in media with competing scattering mechanisms, namely layering (where the thickness is greater than a wavelength) and parallel sets of fractures. In both cases, the fracture spacing is greater than a wavelength. When the layer thickness is smaller than a wavelength, P-wave guiding is controlled by the spacing of the fractures, fracture specific stiffness, the frequency of the signal and the orientation of the layering relative to the fracture set. The orientation of the layering determines the directionally dependent P-wave velocity in the anisotropic matrix. When the layer thickness is greater than a wavelength and an explosive point source of a signal is located in the layer containing a fracture, the fracture either enhanced or suppressed compressional-mode wave guiding caused by the layering in the matrix.

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