Repeated injection of hydrothermal fluids into downdip carbonates: a diagenetic and stratigraphic mechanism for localization of reservoir porosity, Indian Basin Field, New Mexico, USA
Erik J. Hiemstra, Robert H. Goldstein, 2015. "Repeated injection of hydrothermal fluids into downdip carbonates: a diagenetic and stratigraphic mechanism for localization of reservoir porosity, Indian Basin Field, New Mexico, USA", Fundamental Controls on Fluid Flow in Carbonates: Current Workflows to Emerging Technologies, S. M. Agar, S. Geiger
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A detailed study of the Pennsylvanian Indian Basin Field of New Mexico, USA is used to develop a conceptual model that predicts reservoir porosity in clean down-depositional-dip marine carbonate, where repeated fracturing allows for hydrothermal fluid flow. Strata updip probably experienced repeated events of subaerial exposure, resulting in mineralogical stabilization and extensive calcite cementation that prevented extensive hydrothermal alteration. Clean, carbonate sediment deposited downdip was more prone to alteration by hydrothermal fluids. In the reservoir, cement stratigraphy shows regionally persistent zones closely associated with fracturing. Fluid inclusion data show high temperatures and repeated rises and falls, indicating tectonic valving in a hydrothermal system. Salinity data support this and indicate a late event of meteoric influx. Sr- and O-isotope data indicate higher temperature and less rock–water interaction in fault damage zones, evidence for intensified fluid flow in such areas. Formation of vugs and molds was associated with the hydrothermal fluid flow, which was driven by convection, probably initiated during 40–30 Ma intrusive activity and continuing after the onset of Basin and Range uplift and unroofing.
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Fundamental Controls on Fluid Flow in Carbonates: Current Workflows to Emerging Technologies
This volume highlights key challenges for fluid-flow prediction in carbonate reservoirs, the approaches currently employed to address these challenges and developments in fundamental science and technology. The papers span methods and case studies that highlight workflows and emerging technologies in the fields of geology, geophysics, petrophysics, reservoir modelling and computer science. Topics include: detailed pore-scale studies that explore fundamental processes and applications of imaging and flow modelling at the pore scale; case studies of diagenetic processes with complementary perspectives from reactive transport modelling; novel methods for rock typing; petrophysical studies that investigate the impact of diagenesis and fault-rock properties on acoustic signatures; mechanical modelling and seismic imaging of faults in carbonate rocks; modelling geological influences on seismic anisotropy; novel approaches to geological modelling; methods to represent key geological details in reservoir simulations and advances in computer visualization, analytics and interactions for geoscience and engineering.