A. G. Bulakh, 2015. "Ornamental stone in the history of St Petersburg architecture", Global Heritage Stone: Towards International Recognition of Building and Ornamental Stones, D. Pereira, B. R. Marker, S. Kramar, B. J. Cooper, B. E. Schouenborg
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St Petersburg was founded in 1703. Between 1703 and the 1830s, buildings of baroque and classicism styles were faced with stones from the NW part of the Russian Empire. In 1840s–1910s, many new types of ornamental stones from different European countries were added to the faces of buildings of so-called eclecticism and modernism styles. The map of deposits shows 32 main sources of stone. This report gives a chronological review of the use of natural stone in the architecture of St Petersburg, Russia, in 1703–2009. The map of deposits and a list of rock types are given.
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This volume provides a synopsis of current research on volcanic processes, as gained through the use of palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic techniques. Thermoremanent magnetization information provides a powerful means of deciphering thermal processes in volcanic deposits, including estimating the emplacement temperature of pyroclastic deposits, which allows us to understand better the rates of cooling during eruption and transport. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and anisotropy of remanence are used primarily to investigate rock fabrics and to quantify flow dynamics in dykes, lava flows, and pyroclastic deposits, as well as identify vent locations. Rock-magnetic characteristics allow correlation of volcanic deposits, but also provide means to date volcanic deposits and to understand better their cooling history. Because lava flows are typically good recorders of past magnetic fields, data from them allow understanding of changes in geomagnetic field directions and intensity, providing clues on the origin of Earth’s magnetic field.