Podpeč limestone: a heritage stone from Slovenia
S. Kramar, M. Bedjanič, B. Mirtič, A. Mladenović, B. Rožič, D. Skaberne, M. Gutman, N. Zupančič, B. Cooper, 2015. "Podpeč limestone: a heritage stone from Slovenia", Global Heritage Stone: Towards International Recognition of Building and Ornamental Stones, D. Pereira, B. R. Marker, S. Kramar, B. J. Cooper, B. E. Schouenborg
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Podpeč Limestone is characterized by its dark grey or nearly black colour, contrasting with white fossil shells of the mollusc Lithiotis. This formation, which has been dated as Lower Jurassic, occurs in southern and southwestern Slovenia and is particularly conspicuous in areas SW of Ljubljana. The main quarry, which is not active, is located near the village of Podpeč near Ljubljana and has been recognized as a geological site of national importance; as such, it is officially protected as a natural monument. The utilization of Podpeč Limestone was first documented during the Roman period in Slovenia. At the end of the 5th century AD, with the decline of the Roman Empire, stone-cutting ceased at Podpeč for many centuries. Towards the end of the 19th century Podpeč Limestone became better-known. During the first half of the 20th century significant stonecutting workshops were established in Podpeč with most stone being supplied from the main quarry. The internationally renowned Slovenian architect Jože Plečnik (1872–1957) used Podpeč Limestone in various Slovenian buildings, some of national importance. The utilization and national recognition of Podpeč Limestone within Slovenia provide abundant support for its nomination as a Global Heritage Stone Resource.
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This volume provides a synopsis of current research on volcanic processes, as gained through the use of palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic techniques. Thermoremanent magnetization information provides a powerful means of deciphering thermal processes in volcanic deposits, including estimating the emplacement temperature of pyroclastic deposits, which allows us to understand better the rates of cooling during eruption and transport. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and anisotropy of remanence are used primarily to investigate rock fabrics and to quantify flow dynamics in dykes, lava flows, and pyroclastic deposits, as well as identify vent locations. Rock-magnetic characteristics allow correlation of volcanic deposits, but also provide means to date volcanic deposits and to understand better their cooling history. Because lava flows are typically good recorders of past magnetic fields, data from them allow understanding of changes in geomagnetic field directions and intensity, providing clues on the origin of Earth’s magnetic field.