Colmenar Limestone, Madrid, Spain: considerations for its nomination as a Global Heritage Stone Resource due to its long term durability
R. Fort, M. J. Varas-Muriel, M. Alvarez de Buergo, E. M. Perez-Monserrat, 2015. "Colmenar Limestone, Madrid, Spain: considerations for its nomination as a Global Heritage Stone Resource due to its long term durability", Global Heritage Stone: Towards International Recognition of Building and Ornamental Stones, D. Pereira, B. R. Marker, S. Kramar, B. J. Cooper, B. E. Schouenborg
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Colmenar Limestone is one of the traditional materials most commonly used in monuments in Madrid, Spain. The petrophysical properties of this stone determine its high resistance to decay. Its low water absorption and pore size distribution favour good hydraulic behaviour, which is likewise furthered by its high ultrasound velocity and low anisotropy. The durability findings pursuant to the 280 freeze–thaw, 42 thermal shock, 30 salt crystallization and 120 salt mist cycles conducted confirmed the stone’s resistance to decay in these simulated aggressive environments. The mass loss recorded in the samples and the variation in petrophysical parameters were generally very low after all except the salt crystallization trials, which induced loss of cohesion on the stone surface, increased roughness and the formation of concentric microcracks, sub-parallel to the more exposed surface, that also affected the arris and vertices of the specimens tested.
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This volume provides a synopsis of current research on volcanic processes, as gained through the use of palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic techniques. Thermoremanent magnetization information provides a powerful means of deciphering thermal processes in volcanic deposits, including estimating the emplacement temperature of pyroclastic deposits, which allows us to understand better the rates of cooling during eruption and transport. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and anisotropy of remanence are used primarily to investigate rock fabrics and to quantify flow dynamics in dykes, lava flows, and pyroclastic deposits, as well as identify vent locations. Rock-magnetic characteristics allow correlation of volcanic deposits, but also provide means to date volcanic deposits and to understand better their cooling history. Because lava flows are typically good recorders of past magnetic fields, data from them allow understanding of changes in geomagnetic field directions and intensity, providing clues on the origin of Earth’s magnetic field.