The Hallandia gneiss, a Swedish heritage stone resource
B. Schouenborg, J. Andersson, M. Göransson, Inger Lundqvist, 2015. "The Hallandia gneiss, a Swedish heritage stone resource", Global Heritage Stone: Towards International Recognition of Building and Ornamental Stones, D. Pereira, B. R. Marker, S. Kramar, B. J. Cooper, B. E. Schouenborg
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Cited documents indicate that industrial production of building stones of the Hallandia gneiss from SW Sweden (Halland County) goes back to at least the 1850s when large quantities of paving stones were exported to Germany and Denmark. It is most likely that quarry operations have been going on for a much longer period, mostly for local needs.
The Hallandia gneiss is an aesthetically distinct gneiss unit characterized by multiple phases of deformation and veining at high-grade metamorphic conditions, unique with few, if any, equivalents in the world. Remnants of about 500 quarries (including small examples) have been documented in the area. The occurrence of Hallandia gneiss is limited to the coastal areas of SW Sweden where there are strong demands on the land for recreation and cultural heritage. The unique and restricted occurrence of the Hallandia gneiss to an area with strong competing interests of land use has resulted in severe concerns about the supply of this building stone material.
The need to safeguard a future supply of this rare stone type is urgent. This paper provides an outline of its unique geology, historic and present use, along with its technical and aesthetical properties.
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This volume provides a synopsis of current research on volcanic processes, as gained through the use of palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic techniques. Thermoremanent magnetization information provides a powerful means of deciphering thermal processes in volcanic deposits, including estimating the emplacement temperature of pyroclastic deposits, which allows us to understand better the rates of cooling during eruption and transport. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and anisotropy of remanence are used primarily to investigate rock fabrics and to quantify flow dynamics in dykes, lava flows, and pyroclastic deposits, as well as identify vent locations. Rock-magnetic characteristics allow correlation of volcanic deposits, but also provide means to date volcanic deposits and to understand better their cooling history. Because lava flows are typically good recorders of past magnetic fields, data from them allow understanding of changes in geomagnetic field directions and intensity, providing clues on the origin of Earth’s magnetic field.