Cumbria and the northern Pennines
C. N. Waters, M. T. Dean, N. S. Jones, I. D. Somerville, 2011. "Cumbria and the northern Pennines", A Revised Correlation of Carboniferous Rocks in the British Isles, C. N. Waters, I. D. Somerville, N. S. Jones, C. J. Cleal, J. D. Collinson, R. A. Waters, B. M. Besly, M. T. Dean, M. H. Stephenson, J. R. Davies, E. C. Freshney, D. I. Jackson, W. I. Mitchell, J. H. Powell, W. J. Barclay, M. A. E. Browne, B. E. Leveridge, S. L. Long, D. McLean
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Carboniferous rocks within the Cumbria and northern Pennines region are bound by the Maryport-Stublick-Ninety Fathom Fault System, which forms the northern boundary of the Lake District and Alston blocks (Fig. 37). In the Pennines, the succession occupies the Alston and Askrigg blocks and the intervening Stainmore Trough, a broadly east-west trending graben. Carboniferous strata also flank the Lake District Block, occurring at outcrop in north Cumbria, Furness and Cartmel (south Cumbria) and the Vale of Eden, and in the subsurface in west Cumbria. The Askrigg Block succession is separated from that of the Craven Basin (Chapter 11), to the south, by the Craven Fault System.
All of the stages of the Carboniferous, with the exception of the Stephanian, are present at outcrop. The oldest Tournaisian strata occur at outcrop along the flanks of the Lake District Block and within the Stainmore Trough. They are represented by continental and peritidal deposits (Ravenstonedale Group), and locally associated with volcanic rocks (Cockermouth Volcanic Formation of north Cumbria). The Ravenstonedale Group is diachronous, occurring later on the structural highs, with deposition during Chadian times on the Askrigg Block and Holkerian times on the Alston Block. The Ravenstonedale Group is overlain by upper Tournaisian to upper Visean platform carbonate rocks (Great Scar Limestone Group), which initially developed on the flanks of the Lake District Block, but by late Asbian times extended across the entire region (Mitchell 1978).
Figures & Tables
The report revises and expands upon the 1976 and 1978 publications for the Dinantian and Silesian, respectively, combining them into a single account of British and Irish Carboniferous stratigraphy. The need to update the two Special Reports reflects the considerable advances in Carboniferous geology over the last 30 years. The report covers developments in international chronostratigraphy and incorporates wholesale reassessments of British lithostratigraphy. A huge volume of biostratigraphical information has been published over recent decades and the report summarizes the key information.
Carboniferous rocks have long been of economic importance, but it is the search for hydrocarbons, in its infancy at the time of the previous reports, which has greatly increased our understanding of Carboniferous successions offshore and at depth, particularly in southern and eastern England.