Characterization of mafic enclaves in the erupted products of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, 2009 to 2010
Published:January 01, 2014
Melissa Plail, Jenni Barclay, Madeleine C. S. Humphreys, Marie Edmonds, Richard A. Herd, Thomas E. Christopher, 2014. "Characterization of mafic enclaves in the erupted products of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, 2009 to 2010", The Eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 2000 to 2010, G. Wadge, R. E. A. Robertson, B. Voight
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Lavas from the current eruption of the Soufrière Hills Volcano (SHV), Montserrat exhibit evidence for magma mingling, related to the intrusion of mafic magma at depth. We present detailed field, petrological, textural and geochemical descriptions of mafic enclaves in andesite erupted during 2009–2010, and subdivide the enclaves into three distinct types: type A are mafic, glassy with chilled margins and few inherited phenocrysts; type B are more evolved with high inherited phenocryst content and little glass, and are interpreted as significantly hybridized; type C are composite, with a mafic interior (type A) and a hybrid exterior (type B). All enclaves define tight linear compositional trends, interpreted as mixing between a mafic end member (type A) and host andesite. Enclave glasses are rhyolitic, owing to extensive crystallization during quenching. Type A quench crystallization is driven by rapid thermal equilibration during injection into the andesite. Conversely, type B enclaves form in a hybridized melt layer, which ponded near the base of the chamber and cooled more slowly. Vesiculation near the mafic–silicic interface resulted in disruption of the hybridized layer and the formation of the type B enclaves. The composite enclaves represent an interface between types A and B, suggesting multiple episodes of mafic injection.
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The Eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 2000 to 2010
The 1995 to present eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano on Montserrat is one of the most important and best-studied eruptions of an explosive andesitic volcano. This volume presents scientific findings from the period between 2000 and 2010; it follows on from Memoir 21, which focused on the early years of activity between 1995 and 1999. In addition to descriptions and analysis of the growth, collapse and explosions associated with lava domes, there are papers on the deformation of the volcano caused by the deep magma, the petrology and geochemistry of the lavas and associated gases. Of particular note are: an overview of the insights into the deep structure of the volcano that resulted from a major international seismic tomography experiment; and an analysis of the quantitative risk assessment process that has run now for most of the eruption, the longest such continuous assessment in the world.