The effect of topography on ash-cloud surge generation and propagation
Published:January 01, 2014
Sarah E. Ogburn, Eliza S. Calder, Paul D. Cole, Adam J. Stinton, 2014. "The effect of topography on ash-cloud surge generation and propagation", The Eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 2000 to 2010, G. Wadge, R. E. A. Robertson, B. Voight
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The relationship between valley morphology and ash-cloud surge development for 12 pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) at Soufrière Hills Volcano (SHV), Montserrat is investigated. Channel slope, sinuosity and cross-sectional area were measured from high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) using geographical information system (GIS) software; and were compared to geometric parameters of the deposits. The data illustrate three surge-generation regimes: a proximal area of rapid expansion; a medial deflation zone; and a steadier distal surge ‘fringe’. The extent to which these regimes develop varies with flow volume. For larger flows, within the proximal and medial regimes, a strong inverse correlation exists between surge detachment and valley cross-sectional area. Surge detachment is also correlated with observed and modelled flow velocities. Areas of topography-induced increases in velocity are interpreted to result in more pervasive fragmentation and fluidization, and thus enhanced surge generation. Distally, surge deposits appear as fringes with decaying extents, indicative of more passive expansion and decreasing velocity. The results indicate that surge mobility and detachment are a complex product of flow mass flux and topography, and that future efforts to model dense–dilute coupled flows will need to account for and integrate several mechanisms acting on different parts of the flow.
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The Eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 2000 to 2010
The 1995 to present eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano on Montserrat is one of the most important and best-studied eruptions of an explosive andesitic volcano. This volume presents scientific findings from the period between 2000 and 2010; it follows on from Memoir 21, which focused on the early years of activity between 1995 and 1999. In addition to descriptions and analysis of the growth, collapse and explosions associated with lava domes, there are papers on the deformation of the volcano caused by the deep magma, the petrology and geochemistry of the lavas and associated gases. Of particular note are: an overview of the insights into the deep structure of the volcano that resulted from a major international seismic tomography experiment; and an analysis of the quantitative risk assessment process that has run now for most of the eruption, the longest such continuous assessment in the world.