Sediment deformation and dewatering under horizontal compression: Experimental results
Bobb Carson, Peter L. Berglund, 1986. "Sediment deformation and dewatering under horizontal compression: Experimental results", Structural Fabrics in Deep Sea Drilling Project Cores From Forearcs, J. Casey Moore
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Experimental deformation of submerged, saturated sediment indicates that under horizontal compression marine deposits fracture, forming conjugate shear sets and, in several cases, imbricate thrust sheets that dip toward the locus of deformation. At the same time, the sediment consolidates by dewatering through the sediment-water interface. Water loss is directly related to duration of compression and proximity to the origin of the stress field. Consolidation results in increased sediment shear strength.
Microfabric studies indicate that deformation induces formation of fractures, faults, and crenulations, ranging in width from 15 μm to 1 mm. The fractures appear to be important dewatering conduits, which may influence the gross permeability of the sediment mass. Fluid escape or differential slip along faults results in reorientation of platy particles defining narrow zones of preferred orientation in soft sediment. If water loss is impeded during deformation, hydrofracturing may occur.