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Book Chapter

VNIR spectral characteristics of terrestrial igneous effusive rocks: mineralogical composition and the influence of texture

By
C. Carli
C. Carli
1
Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali-INAF Roma, Via fosso del cavaliere 100, 00133, Rome, Italy
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G. Serventi
G. Serventi
2
Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Macedonio Meloni, Università degli studi di Parma, Parma, Italy
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M. Sgavetti
M. Sgavetti
2
Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Macedonio Meloni, Università degli studi di Parma, Parma, Italy
3
International Research School of Planetary Sciences, Chieti-Pescara, Italy
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Published:
January 01, 2015

Abstract

Visible and Near-Infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy is an important technique with which to map mineralogy and mineralogical variations across planetary surfaces using remotely sensed data. Absorption bands in this spectral range are due to electronic or molecular processes directly related to mineral families or specific compositions. Effusive igneous rocks are widely recognized materials distributed on the surfaces of terrestrial planets, and are formed by primary minerals that can be discriminated by electronic absorptions (e.g. crystal field absorption). In this paper, we review the current knowledge of effusive rock compositions obtained by crystal field absorption in VNIR reflectance spectroscopy, and consider how different petrographical characteristics influence the mineralogical interpretation of such rock compositions. We show that: (1) the dominant mineralogy can be clearly recognized for crystalline material, especially with relatively large crystal dimension groundmass or high porphyritic index; (2) both grain and crystal size are important factors that influence the spectra of effusive rocks where groundmass is generally characterized by microscopic crystals; and (3) glassy dark components in the groundmass reduce or hide the crystal field absorption of mafic minerals or plagioclase otherwise expected to be present.

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Contents

Geological Society, London, Special Publications

Volcanism and Tectonism Across the Inner Solar System

T. Platz
T. Platz
Planetary Science Institute, USA
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M. Massironi
M. Massironi
Università degli Studi di Padova, Italy
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P. K. Byrne
P. K. Byrne
Lunar and Planetary Institute, USA
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H. Hiesinger
H. Hiesinger
Westfälische Wilhelms-Universitä Münster, Germany
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Geological Society of London
Volume
401
ISBN electronic:
9781862396777
Publication date:
January 01, 2015

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