Magma flow within dykes in submarine hyaloclastite environments: an AMS study of the Miocene Cabo de Gata volcanic units
M. Porreca, F. Cifelli, C. Soriano, G. Giordano, M. Mattei, 2015. "Magma flow within dykes in submarine hyaloclastite environments: an AMS study of the Miocene Cabo de Gata volcanic units", The Use of Palaeomagnetism and Rock Magnetism to Understand Volcanic Processes, M. H. Ort, M. Porreca, J. W. Geissman
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The Miocene Cabo de Gata volcanic arc in SE Spain comprises a wide variety of volcanic facies and eruptive styles in subaqueous to subaerial environments. In the SW sector of the area, 5–100 m-thick, NNW–SSE-orientated dykes feed and intrude submarine hyaloclastite deposits. We analysed the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of six dykes and five hyaloclastite sites from three volcanic units: the Cerro Cañadillas, Los Frailes, and El Barronal formations. The main magnetic minerals are primary low-Ti titanomagnetite and magnetite. The AMS ellipsoids in the dykes are generally oblate-triaxial in shape, with magnetic foliations subparallel to the dyke walls. Kinematic field evidence supports the inferred flow directions deduced from magnetic lineation and imbrication of magnetic foliation. The geometric relationships between dyke margins and AMS axes indicate that dykes at El Barronal were emplaced via prevalent subvertical upward magma flow. The inferred flow directions are reproduced well by analogue models of AMS simulating magma migration in dykes with a diapiric geometry. The other dykes were emplaced by lateral magma propagation. Conversely, hyaloclastite shows a large scatter of the AMS axes reflecting different degrees of fragmentation. We observe a gradual increase in scatter in the AMS from confined dykes to fragmented hyaloclastite.
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This volume provides a synopsis of current research on volcanic processes, as gained through the use of palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic techniques. Thermoremanent magnetization information provides a powerful means of deciphering thermal processes in volcanic deposits, including estimating the emplacement temperature of pyroclastic deposits, which allows us to understand better the rates of cooling during eruption and transport. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and anisotropy of remanence are used primarily to investigate rock fabrics and to quantify flow dynamics in dykes, lava flows, and pyroclastic deposits, as well as identify vent locations. Rock-magnetic characteristics allow correlation of volcanic deposits, but also provide means to date volcanic deposits and to understand better their cooling history. Because lava flows are typically good recorders of past magnetic fields, data from them allow understanding of changes in geomagnetic field directions and intensity, providing clues on the origin of Earth’s magnetic field.