Rock-magnetic evidence for the low-temperature emplacement of the Habushiura pyroclastic density current, Niijima Island, Japan
Reina Nakaoka, Keiko Suzuki-Kamata, 2015. "Rock-magnetic evidence for the low-temperature emplacement of the Habushiura pyroclastic density current, Niijima Island, Japan", The Use of Palaeomagnetism and Rock Magnetism to Understand Volcanic Processes, M. H. Ort, M. Porreca, J. W. Geissman
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The emplacement temperatures of accidental and juvenile fragments in the Habushiura pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposit were estimated using analysis of rock magnetism. The Habushiura PDC was generated in a costal or shallow offshore area during the early stage of the AD 886 phreatomagmatic eruption on Niijima Island, Japan. We collected 160 samples from 11 beds, which include three lithofacies types: a massive lapilli tuff (Facies A); a graded and/or diffusely stratified lapilli tuff (Facies B); and a swarm of large pumice (Facies C). Juvenile specimens from Facies A and C show a wide range of emplacement temperatures, from less than 150 °C up to 300 °C, in contrast with the emplacement temperatures lower than 150 °C of Facies B. Morphological features of the ash components and random changes in palaeomagnetic direction by stepwise thermal demagnetization indicate that low-temperature emplacement occurred by phreatomagmatic eruptions and ingestion of ambient air by the turbulent current. The emplacement temperatures of accidental fragments were up to 380 °C, which is higher than juvenile fragments. They are thought to have cooled more slowly than juvenile fragments due to the smaller surface area with respect to their volume.
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This volume provides a synopsis of current research on volcanic processes, as gained through the use of palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic techniques. Thermoremanent magnetization information provides a powerful means of deciphering thermal processes in volcanic deposits, including estimating the emplacement temperature of pyroclastic deposits, which allows us to understand better the rates of cooling during eruption and transport. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and anisotropy of remanence are used primarily to investigate rock fabrics and to quantify flow dynamics in dykes, lava flows, and pyroclastic deposits, as well as identify vent locations. Rock-magnetic characteristics allow correlation of volcanic deposits, but also provide means to date volcanic deposits and to understand better their cooling history. Because lava flows are typically good recorders of past magnetic fields, data from them allow understanding of changes in geomagnetic field directions and intensity, providing clues on the origin of Earth’s magnetic field.