Provenance of sedimentary units along the Baltoscandian margin
In central parts of the Scandinavian Caledonides, detrital zircon signatures provide evidence of the change in character of the Baltoscandian crystalline basement, from the characteristic Late Palaeoproterozoic granites of the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt (TIB, c. 1650–1850 Ma) in the foreland Autochthon to the typical, mainly Mesoproterozoic-age profile (c. 950–1700 Ma) of the Sveconorwegian Orogen of southwestern Scandinavia in the hinterland. Late Ediacaran to Early Cambrian shallow-marine Vemdal quartzites of the Jämtlandian Nappes (Lower Allochthon) provide strong bimodal signatures with TIB (1700–1800 Ma) and Sveconorwegian, sensu stricto (900–1150 Ma) ages dominant. Mid-Ordovician turbidites (Norråker Formation) of the Lower Allochthon in Sweden, sourced from the west, have unimodal signatures dominated by Sveconorwegian ages with peaks at 1000–1100 Ma, but with subordinate components of older Mesoproterozoic zircons (1200–1650 Ma). Latest Ordovician shallow-marine quartzites also yield bimodal signatures, but are more dispersed than in the Vemdal quartzites. In the greenschist facies lower parts of the Middle Allochthon, the Fuda (Offerdal Nappe) and Särv Nappe signatures are either unimodal or bimodal (950–1100 and/or 1700–1850 Ma), with variable dominance of the younger or older group, and subordinate other Mesoproterozoic components. In the overlying, amphibolite to eclogite facies lower part of the Seve Nappe Complex, where the metasediments are dominated by feldspathic quartzites, calcsilicate-rich psammites and marbles, most units have bimodal signatures similar to the Särv Nappes, but more dispersed; one has a unimodal signature very similar to the Ordovician turbidites of the Jämtlandian Nappes. In the overlying Upper Allochthon, Lower Köli (Baltica-proximal, Virisen Terrane), Late Ordovician quartzites provide unimodal signatures dominated by Sveconorwegian ages (sensu stricto). Further north in the Scandes, previously published zircon signatures in quartzites of the Lower Allochthon are similar to the Vemdal quartzites in Jämtland. Data from the Kalak Nappes at 70°N are in no way exotic to the Sveconorwegian Baltoscandian margin. They do show a Timanian influence (ages of c. 560–610 Ma), as would be expected from the palinspastic reconstructions of the nappes. Thus the detrital zircon signatures reported here and published elsewhere provide supporting evidence for a continuation northwards of the Sveconorwegian Orogen in the Neoproterozoic, from type areas in the south, along the Baltoscandian margin of Baltica into the high Arctic.
LA-ICP-MS U–Pb analyses are available at http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/SUP18699.
Figures & Tables
New Perspectives on the Caledonides of Scandinavia and Related Areas
The Caledonides are a major orogenic belt that stretches from the Arctic, through Scandinavia, East Greenland, Britain and Ireland into the Atlantic coast of North America. Following the break-up of Rodinia, the Caledonides formed in the Palaeozoic by the drifting of various continents and their eventual aggregation in the Silurian and Devonian. The orogen subsequently fragmented during the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. This volume brings together 25 papers presenting the results of modern research that investigates the orogenic processes and the provenance of specific components of the belt. The contributions reflect different lines of research, linking traditional field studies with modern analytical techniques. In addition three overview papers summarize the main features of the belts in Scandinavia, Svalbard, East Greenland, Britain and Ireland, highlighting the advances made since the last major synthesis of the Scandinavian Caledonides 30 years ago, and discussing important open questions.