Volcano monitoring applications of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument
Published:January 01, 2013
Brendan T. McCormick, Marie Edmonds, Tamsin A. Mather, Robin Campion, Catherine S. L. Hayer, Helen E. Thomas, Simon A. Carn, 2013. "Volcano monitoring applications of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument", Remote Sensing of Volcanoes and Volcanic Processes: Integrating Observation and Modelling, D. M. Pyle, T. A. Mather, J. Biggs
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The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is a satellite-based ultraviolet (UV) spectrometer with unprecedented sensitivity to atmospheric sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations. Since late 2004, OMI has provided a high-quality SO2 dataset with near-continuous daily global coverage. In this review, we discuss the principal applications of this dataset to volcano monitoring: (1) the detection and tracking of large eruption clouds, primarily for aviation hazard mitigation; and (2) the use of OMI data for long-term monitoring of volcanic degassing. This latter application is relatively novel, and despite showing some promise, requires further study into a number of key uncertainties. We discuss these uncertainties, and illustrate their potential impact on volcano monitoring with OMI through four new case studies. We also discuss potential future avenues of research using OMI data, with a particular emphasis on the need for greater integration between various monitoring strategies, instruments and datasets.
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Remote Sensing of Volcanoes and Volcanic Processes: Integrating Observation and Modelling
Volcanoes have played a profound role in shaping our planet, and volcanic activity is a major hazard locally, regionally and globally. Many volcanoes are, however, poorly accessible and sparsely monitored. Consequently, remote sensing is playing an increasingly important role in tracking volcano behaviour, while synoptic remote sensing techniques have begun to make major contributions to volcanological science. Volcanology is driven in part by the operational concerns of volcano monitoring and hazard management, but the goal of volcanological science is to understand the processes that underlie volcanic activity. This volume shows how we may reach a deeper understanding by integrating remote sensing measurements with modelling approaches and, if available, ground-based observations. It includes reviews and papers that report technical advances and document key case studies. They span a range of remote sensing applications to volcanoes, from volcano deformation, thermal anomalies and gas fluxes, to the tracking of eruptive ash and gas plumes. The result is a state-of-the-art overview of the ever-growing importance of remote sensing to volcanology.