Constraining the uncertainties of volcano thermal anomaly monitoring using a Kalman filter technique
Klemen Zakšek, Manoochehr Shirzaei, Matthias Hort, 2013. "Constraining the uncertainties of volcano thermal anomaly monitoring using a Kalman filter technique", Remote Sensing of Volcanoes and Volcanic Processes: Integrating Observation and Modelling, D. M. Pyle, T. A. Mather, J. Biggs
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The activity status of a volcano can be evaluated from the remotely measured radiant power (RP). The measured RP contains noise due to reasons such as atmospheric effects and instrument characteristics. Here we first show how to estimate the uncertainty of each single RP measurement. To additionally reduce the temporal noise of the RP time series we apply a Kalman filter. The Kalman filter is able to recursively analyse an unevenly sampled time series. To validate our filtering scheme, we applied it to an eruption of Etna in 2002, as well as to the eruption of Nyamuragira in 2010. In the case of the Etna eruption, the denoised time series agrees well with in situ observations of a waxing and waning flow. For the case of Nyamuragira, the enhanced time series of RP shows more fluctuation probably due to cloud coverage. Thus, we propose a multiple instrument approach that increases the temporal resolution of the RP time series and reduces the associated noise.
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Remote Sensing of Volcanoes and Volcanic Processes: Integrating Observation and Modelling
Volcanoes have played a profound role in shaping our planet, and volcanic activity is a major hazard locally, regionally and globally. Many volcanoes are, however, poorly accessible and sparsely monitored. Consequently, remote sensing is playing an increasingly important role in tracking volcano behaviour, while synoptic remote sensing techniques have begun to make major contributions to volcanological science. Volcanology is driven in part by the operational concerns of volcano monitoring and hazard management, but the goal of volcanological science is to understand the processes that underlie volcanic activity. This volume shows how we may reach a deeper understanding by integrating remote sensing measurements with modelling approaches and, if available, ground-based observations. It includes reviews and papers that report technical advances and document key case studies. They span a range of remote sensing applications to volcanoes, from volcano deformation, thermal anomalies and gas fluxes, to the tracking of eruptive ash and gas plumes. The result is a state-of-the-art overview of the ever-growing importance of remote sensing to volcanology.