Sergio Andò, Eduardo Garzanti, 2014. "Raman spectroscopy in heavy-mineral studies", Sediment Provenance Studies in Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production, R. A. Scott, H. R. Smyth, A. C. Morton, N. Richardson
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Raman spectroscopy is an innovative tool with tremendous potential, serving as a fundamental complement to a variety of provenance methods including heavy-mineral analysis and detrital geochronology. Because of its accuracy, efficiency and versatility, the results of the Raman technique are indispensable for fully reliable identification of heavy minerals in grain mounts or thin sections. Thorny long-standing problems that cannot be solved confidently with a polarizing microscope alone, such as the determination of opaque and altered heavy minerals, of detrital grains as small as a few microns, or of colourless crystals with uncertain orientation and rounded morphology, can finally be addressed. Although the method can be highly automatized, the full ability and experience of the operator is required to combine Raman data with the optical information obtained under the microscope on the same grains, which is essential for the efficient application of the method in provenance studies. This article provides exemplary Raman spectra useful for the comparison and determination of over 70 different opaque and transparent heavy-mineral species commonly found in sediments, conveying specific information on the genesis of their source rocks, and thus is particularly useful in provenance diagnoses and palaeotectonic reconstructions.
Detailed information on the lasers used and the origin of the analysed minerals is available at http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/SUP18615.
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Sediment Provenance Studies in Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production
Sediment provenance studies concern the origin, composition, transportation and deposition of detritus and therefore are an important part of understanding the links between basinal sedimentation, and hinterland tectonics and unroofing. Such studies can add value at many stages of hydrocarbon exploitation, from identifying regional-scale crustal affinities and sediment dispersal patterns during the earliest stages of exploration, to detailed correlation in producing reservoirs and understanding the impact of mineralogy on reservoir diagenesis.
The volume showcases the wide variety of techniques available, using examples and applications from all aspects of sediment provenance research. The papers are organized into four sets around the following themes:
Overview: applications of provenance information in hydrocarbon reservoir sandstones
Provenance, diagenesis and reservoir quality
Provenance studies linking sediment to source
Looking forward: development of techniques and data handling
This book is dedicated to the memory of Maria Mange and Robert A. Scott.