F. Fratini, S. Rescic, 2014. "The stone materials of the historical architecture of Tuscany, Italy", Stone in Historic Buildings: Characterization and Performance, J. Cassar, M. G. Winter, B. R. Marker, N. R. G. Walton, D. C. Entwisle, E. N. Bromhead, J. W. N. Smith
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The paper presents an overview of the principal stone materials used in the historical architecture of Tuscany, a region of central Italy characterized by a great variety of landscapes. The large number of these materials reflects the complex geology of the region, where each village and town has a unique identity conferred by the architecture and typical colours of the construction materials. The urban areas that have developed in the foothills of the Apennines are, characterized by the use of sandstone, while the towns and villages of central-southern Tuscany are generally more heterogeneous, with an abundant use of bricks and travertine. The information presented is focused on the use of the stone materials during the different epochs, their geopetrographical characteristics and their most common durability problems.