Neoarchaean crustal growth by combined arc–plume action: evidence from the Kadiri Greenstone Belt, eastern Dharwar craton, India
Sukanta Dey, Jinia Nandy, A. K. Choudhary, Yongsheng Liu, Keqing Zong, 2015. "Neoarchaean crustal growth by combined arc–plume action: evidence from the Kadiri Greenstone Belt, eastern Dharwar craton, India", Continent Formation Through Time, N. M. W. Roberts, M. Van Kranendonk, S. Parman, S. Shirey, P. D. Clift
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Field and geochemical studies combined with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) zircon U–Pb dating set important constraints on the timing and petrogenesis of volcanic rocks of the Neoarchaean Kadiri greenstone belt and the mechanism of crust formation in the eastern Dharwar craton (EDC). The volcanic rocks are divided into three suites: tholeiitic basalts, calc-alkaline high-Mg# andesites and dominant dacites–rhyolites. The basalts (pillowed in places) show flat rare earth element (REE) and primordial mantle-normalized trace element patterns, but have minor negative Nb and Ta anomalies. They are interpreted as mantle plume-related oceanic plateau basalts whose source contained minor continental crustal input. The andesites are characterized by high Mg# (0.66–0.52), Cr and Ni, with depletion of high-field strength elements (HFSE) and enrichment of light REE (LREE) and large-ion lithophile elements (LILE). They were probably derived from a metasomatized mantle wedge overlying a subducted slab in a continental margin subduction zone. The dacites–rhyolites are silicic rocks (SiO2=61–72 wt%) with low Cr and Ni, K2O/Na2O mostly 0.5–1.1, highly fractionated REE patterns, enrichments of LILE and distinctly negative HFSE anomalies. One rhyolite sample yielded a zircon U–Pb age of 2353±32 Ma. This suite is similar to potassic adakites and is explained as the product of deep melting of thickened crust in the arc with a significant older crustal component. Collision between a continental margin arc with an oceanic plateau followed by slab break-off, upwelling of hot asthenosphere and extensive crustal reworking in a sustained compressional regime is proposed for the geodynamic evolution of the area. This is in corroboration with the scenario of EDC as a Neoarchaean hot orogen as suggested recently by some workers.
Details of whole-rock major and trace element determination, Nd isotope analysis and zircon U–Pb dating and trace element analysis, the geographical coordinates of the samples and the values of the international rock standards analysed are available at http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/SUP18660
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The continental crust is our archive of Earth history, and the store of many natural resources; however, many key questions about its formation and evolution remain debated and unresolved:
What processes are involved in the formation, differentiation and evolution of continental crust, and how have these changed throughout Earth history?
How are plate tectonics, the supercontinent cycle and mantle cooling linked with crustal evolution?
What are the rates of generation and destruction of the continental crust through time?
How representative is the preserved geological record?
A range of approaches are used to address these questions, including field-based studies, petrology and geochemistry, geophysical methods, palaeomagnetism, whole-rock and accessory-phase isotope chemistry and geochronology. Case studies range from the Eoarchaean to Phanerozoic, and cover many different cratons and orogenic belts from across the continents.