Concepts in halokinetic-sequence deformation and stratigraphy
Katherine A. Giles, Mark G. Rowan, 2012. "Concepts in halokinetic-sequence deformation and stratigraphy", Salt Tectonics, Sediments and Prospectivity, G. I. Alsop, S. G. Archer, A. J. Hartley, N. T. Grant, R. Hodgkinson
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Halokinetic sequences are unconformity-bound packages of thinned and folded strata adjacent to passive diapirs. Hook halokinetic sequences have narrow zones of deformation (50–200 m), >70° angular discordance, common mass-wasting deposits and abrupt facies changes. Wedge halokinetic sequences have broad zones of folding (300–1000 m), low-angle truncation and gradual facies changes. Halokinetic sequences have thicknesses and timescales equivalent to parasequence sets and stack into composite halokinetic sequences (CHS) scale-equivalent to third-order depositional cycles. Hook sequences stack into tabular CHS with sub-parallel boundaries, thin roofs and local deformation. Wedge sequences stack into tapered CHS with folded, convergent boundaries, thicker roofs and broad zones of deformation. The style is determined by the ratio of sediment-accumulation rate to diapir-rise rate: low ratios lead to tabular CHS and high ratios result in tapered CHS. Diapir-rise rate is controlled by the net differential load on deep salt and by shortening or extension. Similar styles of CHS are found in different depositional environments but the depositional response varies. CHS boundaries (unconformities) develop after prolonged periods of slow sediment accumulation and so typically fall within transgressive systems tracts in shelf settings and within highstand systems tracts in deepwater settings. Sub-aerial settings may lead to erosional unroofing of diapirs and consequent upward narrowing of halokinetic deformation zones.
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In this timely volume, geoscientists from both industry and academia present a contemporary view of salt at a global scale. The studies examine the influence of salt on synkinematic sedimentation, its role in basin evolution and tectonics, and ultimately in hydrocarbon prospectivity. Recent improvements in seismic reflection, acquisition and processing techniques have led to significant advances in the understanding of salt and sediment interactions, both along the flanks of vertical or overturned salt margins, and in subsalt plays such as offshore Brazil. The book is broadly separated into five major themes covering a variety of geographical and process-linked topics. These are: halokinetic sequence stratigraphy, salt in passive margin settings, Central European salt basins, deformation within and adjacent to salt, and salt in contractional settings and salt glaciers.