East Indian margin evolution and crustal architecture: integration of deep reflection seismic interpretation and gravity modelling
Published:January 01, 2013
M. Nemčok, S. T. Sinha, C. J. Stuart, C. Welker, M. Choudhuri, S. P. Sharma, A. A. Misra, N. Sinha, S. Venkatraman, 2013. "East Indian margin evolution and crustal architecture: integration of deep reflection seismic interpretation and gravity modelling", Conjugate Divergent Margins, W. U. Mohriak, A. Danforth, P. J. Post, D. E. Brown, G. C. Tari, M. Nemčok, S. T. Sinha
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The segmented East Indian continental margin developed after the Early Cretaceous break-up from Antarctica. Its continental crust terminates abruptly without considerable thinning along the Coromondal strike-slip segment and thins considerably before it terminates in the orthogonal rifting segments. The segments have an exhumed continental mantle corridor oceanwards of them. This, proto-oceanic crust, corridor varies in width from segment to segment, indicating a relationship with varying break-up-controlling tectonics of the adjacent margin segments.
The top of the proto-oceanic crust is imaged by a higher reflectivity zone, while its base does not have any distinct signature. A contorted system of reflectors represents its internal structure. Its gravity signature is a longer-wavelength anomaly with peak values up to 30 mGal less negative than surrounding values. Its magnetic signature is represented by a positive anomaly with peak values of 0–56 nT. Wide proto-oceanic segments are adjacent to margin segments that are preceded by the orthogonally rifting Cauvery, Krishna–Godavari and Mahanadi rift zones. A narrow proto-oceanic segment is adjacent to the margin segment initiated by the dextral Coromondal transfer zone. A combination of seismic interpretation and gravity/magnetic forward modelling indicates that proto-oceanic crust is most probably composed of lower crust slivers and unroofed hydrated upper mantle, being formed between the late rifting and the organized sea-floor spreading.
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Conjugate Divergent Margins
The main focus of the book is the geological and geophysical interpretation of sedimentary basins along the South, Central and North Atlantic conjugate margins, but concepts derived from physical models, outcrop analogues and present-day margins are also discussed in some chapters. There is an encompassing description of several conjugate margins worldwide, based on recent geophysical and geological datasets. An overview of important aspects related to the geodynamic development and petroleum geology of Atlantic-type sedimentary basins is also included. Several chapters analyse genetic mechanisms and break-up processes associated with rift-phase structures and salt tectonics, providing a full description of conjugate margin basins based on deep seismic profiles and potential field methods.