Reservoir characterization of an intra-orogenic Carbonates platform: Pila Spi Formation, Taq Taq oil field, Kurdistan, Iraq
Basim Al-Qayim, Divan Othman, 2012. "Reservoir characterization of an intra-orogenic Carbonates platform: Pila Spi Formation, Taq Taq oil field, Kurdistan, Iraq", Advances in Carbonate Exploration and Reservoir Analysis, J. Garland, J. E. Neilson, S. E. Laubach, K. J. Whidden
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Outcrop studies integrated with subsurface data of core, cuttings and different well logs were used to investigate reservoir characteristics of the Middle–Late Eocene Pila Spi Formation at Taq Taq oil field of Kurdistan Region of northeastern Iraq. Reservoir studies include petrographic investigations, microfacies analyses and petrophysical evaluation in an attempt to provide an insight regarding the reservoir potential.
The Pila Spi Formation is subdivided into four distinctive lithofacies (P1–P4), characterized by dolostones, dolomitic limestones and limestones.
Several types of dolomite were recognized ranging from early diagenetic fenestral fine crystalline to late diagenetic coarse crystalline dolomite, which had positively influenced the reservoir characteristics by enhancing inter-crystalline, intra-skeletal and micro-vug porosity, especially for lithofacies units P2 and P3.
Reservoir porosity is heterogeneous in distribution and ranges from 5 to 20%. Using porosity cut-off values of 8.2%, and water saturation cut-off values of 24%, six porosity units were identified from top to bottom (PU1–PU6). The best unit is PU2 (15 m thick), which is characterized by medium crystalline dolomite mosaic with average effective porosity of 21.5%. Permeability ranges between 0.1 and 1 md.
Flow unit differentiation is discussed in term of porosity–permeability cross-plot and reservoir pore-throat classification (R35). Results indicate that most of the Pila Spi reservoir is of micro-port (matrix) flow type. However, reservoir quality enhancement is attributed to fracturing.
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Carbonate reservoirs contain an increasingly important percentage of the world's hydrocarbon reserves. This volume presents key recent advances in carbonate exploration and reservoir analysis. As well as a comprehensive overview of the trends in carbonate over the years, the volume focuses on four key areas:
emerging plays and techniques – with special reference to lacustrine plays in syn-rift basins and development of super-giant heavy oil plays
improved reservoir characterization – with examples from the Middle East and Europe and case studies of how outcrop analogues can provide key data for input to geological models
impact of fractures and faults in carbonates –contributors highlight the need for integrated structural and diagenetic approaches in order to understand how fractures evolve as fluid-flow conduits
advances in geomodelling of carbonate reservoirs –several papers discuss the application of new and innovative geomodelling and geostatistical techniques to carbonate reservoirs.