Reservoir properties and petrophysical modelling of carbonate sand bodies: outcrop analogue study in an epicontinental basin (Triassic, Germany)
Denis Palermo, Thomas Aigner, Bjoern Seyfang, Sergio Nardon, 2012. "Reservoir properties and petrophysical modelling of carbonate sand bodies: outcrop analogue study in an epicontinental basin (Triassic, Germany)", Advances in Carbonate Exploration and Reservoir Analysis, J. Garland, J. E. Neilson, S. E. Laubach, K. J. Whidden
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This paper represents the second part of an integrated study that is focussed on the development and distribution of reservoir bodies and properties in epeiric carbonate systems. It is based on outcrop analogue data from Triassic ‘layer-cake’ carbonates in the South German Basin, which were deposited along an epicontinental, very gently inclined carbonate ramp. The reservoir facies consists of skeletal and oolitic carbonate grainstones (Φmax 23%, Kmax 700 mD), which are organized in a pronounced hierarchy of stratigraphic cycles. Based on outcrops, cores, gamma ray (GR) logs and thin sections, a high-resolution, geocellular 3D facies model was generated, which covers the area of a Middle East giant gas field (25×36 km). The spatial distribution of reservoir properties was systematically investigated on different scales. The lateral distribution of reservoir properties remains in the same order of magnitude for hundreds of metres, within in the same stratigraphic position. However, on a kilometre scale, facies bodies, diagenetic trends and thus reservoir properties show gradual lateral changes. Vertically, in contrast, properties change commonly on a decimetre scale and are largely controlled by stratigraphic cycles. Petrophysical modelling enhanced the understanding of key factors and processes controlling both reservoir quality and quantity.
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Carbonate reservoirs contain an increasingly important percentage of the world's hydrocarbon reserves. This volume presents key recent advances in carbonate exploration and reservoir analysis. As well as a comprehensive overview of the trends in carbonate over the years, the volume focuses on four key areas:
emerging plays and techniques – with special reference to lacustrine plays in syn-rift basins and development of super-giant heavy oil plays
improved reservoir characterization – with examples from the Middle East and Europe and case studies of how outcrop analogues can provide key data for input to geological models
impact of fractures and faults in carbonates –contributors highlight the need for integrated structural and diagenetic approaches in order to understand how fractures evolve as fluid-flow conduits
advances in geomodelling of carbonate reservoirs –several papers discuss the application of new and innovative geomodelling and geostatistical techniques to carbonate reservoirs.