Lacustrine carbonates in rift settings: the interaction of volcanic and microbial processes on carbonate deposition
V. Paul Wright, 2012. "Lacustrine carbonates in rift settings: the interaction of volcanic and microbial processes on carbonate deposition", Advances in Carbonate Exploration and Reservoir Analysis, J. Garland, J. E. Neilson, S. E. Laubach, K. J. Whidden
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The relatively simplistic facies models for lacustrine carbonates do not currently incorporate either the diversity of microbialite carbonate development or the influence of volcanic-related processes found in rift settings. The basic nature of the carbonate factories in these systems, whether microbial, macrophytic, skeletal or abiogenic, is not resolved. Lacustrine microbialites can develop in shallow lakes as concentrations of microbialite mounds covering many hundreds of square kilometres, or as bathymetrically controlled facies belts, but in many rift settings vent-related thermal and non-thermal carbonates (travertines and tufas) are a major component. Subaqueous vent-related carbonates, with evidence of microbial activity, can produce seismic-scale carbonate build-ups in deeper lakes or apparently more stratiform accumulations in shallow lakes. In lakes with only volcanic catchments, Mg and silica activity, coupled with high carbonate alkalinity and microbial influences, can potentially generate a complex set of mineral–microbe interactions and products, creating a unique set of challenges for predicting and understanding reservoirs in such settings.
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Carbonate reservoirs contain an increasingly important percentage of the world's hydrocarbon reserves. This volume presents key recent advances in carbonate exploration and reservoir analysis. As well as a comprehensive overview of the trends in carbonate over the years, the volume focuses on four key areas:
emerging plays and techniques – with special reference to lacustrine plays in syn-rift basins and development of super-giant heavy oil plays
improved reservoir characterization – with examples from the Middle East and Europe and case studies of how outcrop analogues can provide key data for input to geological models
impact of fractures and faults in carbonates –contributors highlight the need for integrated structural and diagenetic approaches in order to understand how fractures evolve as fluid-flow conduits
advances in geomodelling of carbonate reservoirs –several papers discuss the application of new and innovative geomodelling and geostatistical techniques to carbonate reservoirs.