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The Late Palaeozoic glaciation was the longest of the Phanerozoic era. It is recorded in numerous Gondwanan basins, with some, such as the Chaco Basin, having a high petroleum potential. In this basin, the quality of the available seismic, well and outcrop data permits us to characterize the Late Palaeozoic glacial record. Palaeovalleys that are c. 500 m deep and c. 7 km wide have been analysed here. Focusing on the glaciogenic Carboniferous deposits, seismic data with well ties and outcrop analogues provide new sedimentological insights. The palaeovalley infill is imaged as a chaotic seismic facies overlain by an aggrading–prograding prism, interpreted as tillites covered by a fluvio-deltaic system. Tillites form both under the ice and during rapid ice recession, whereas fluvio-deltaic systems can only originate from a stable ice margin and last until the ice sheets withdraw inland. These two depositional modes are repeated several times, generating a progressive burial of the Carboniferous palaeovalleys. This succession of erosions and fills records major glacial stages, including a series of glacial and interglacial phases from the Late Devonian to the Early Permian. Depicting the Late Palaeozoic glacial history of the Chaco Basin seems crucial for the localization of potential good reservoirs.

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