The subsurface record of the Late Palaeozoic glaciation in the Chaco Basin, Bolivia
Published:January 01, 2012
F. Bache, J. Moreau, J. L. Rubino, C. Gorini, B. Van-Vliet Lanoë, 2012. "The subsurface record of the Late Palaeozoic glaciation in the Chaco Basin, Bolivia", Glaciogenic Reservoirs and Hydrocarbon Systems, M. Huuse, J. Redfern, D. P. Le Heron, R. J. Dixon, A. Moscariello, J. Craig
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The Late Palaeozoic glaciation was the longest of the Phanerozoic era. It is recorded in numerous Gondwanan basins, with some, such as the Chaco Basin, having a high petroleum potential. In this basin, the quality of the available seismic, well and outcrop data permits us to characterize the Late Palaeozoic glacial record. Palaeovalleys that are c. 500 m deep and c. 7 km wide have been analysed here. Focusing on the glaciogenic Carboniferous deposits, seismic data with well ties and outcrop analogues provide new sedimentological insights. The palaeovalley infill is imaged as a chaotic seismic facies overlain by an aggrading–prograding prism, interpreted as tillites covered by a fluvio-deltaic system. Tillites form both under the ice and during rapid ice recession, whereas fluvio-deltaic systems can only originate from a stable ice margin and last until the ice sheets withdraw inland. These two depositional modes are repeated several times, generating a progressive burial of the Carboniferous palaeovalleys. This succession of erosions and fills records major glacial stages, including a series of glacial and interglacial phases from the Late Devonian to the Early Permian. Depicting the Late Palaeozoic glacial history of the Chaco Basin seems crucial for the localization of potential good reservoirs.
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Glaciogenic Reservoirs and Hydrocarbon Systems
Glaciogenic reservoirs and hydrocarbon systems occur intermittently throughout the stratigraphic record, with particular prominence in Neoproterozoic, Late Ordovician, Permo-Carboniferous and Late Cenozoic strata. Recent interest in glaciogenic successions has been fuelled by hydrocarbon discoveries in ancient glaciogenic reservoirs in North Africa, the Middle East, Australia and South America. Glaciogenic deposits of Pleistocene age are noteworthy for their content of groundwater onshore and potentially prospective and/or hazardous gas accumulations offshore. The abundant imprints of Pleistocene glaciations in both hemispheres can be used to reconstruct complex histories of repeated ice cover and retreat, and glacier-bed interactions, thus informing our view on the dynamics of older ice caps and predictions of future glaciations. This volume aims to provide a better understanding of glaciogenic processes, their stratigraphic record and reservoir characteristics of glaciogenic deposits. The book comprises 3 overview papers and 16 original case studies of Neoproterozoic to Pleistocene successions on 6 continents and will be of interest to sedimentologists, glaciologists, geophysicists, hydrologists and petroleum geologists alike.