Evidence for multiple ice centres during the late Palaeozoic ice age in Oman: outcrop sedimentology and provenance of the Late Carboniferous–Early Permian Al Khlata Formation
Published:January 01, 2012
Joe R. Martin, Jonathan Redfern, Brian P. J. Williams, 2012. "Evidence for multiple ice centres during the late Palaeozoic ice age in Oman: outcrop sedimentology and provenance of the Late Carboniferous–Early Permian Al Khlata Formation", Glaciogenic Reservoirs and Hydrocarbon Systems, M. Huuse, J. Redfern, D. P. Le Heron, R. J. Dixon, A. Moscariello, J. Craig
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This paper proposes a model for glaciation in Oman during the late Palaeozoic ice age (LPIA) based on sedimentological and provenance analyses of the Late Carboniferous–Early Permian Al Khlata Formation, exposed in the Huqf, Oman. The results demonstrate a complex pattern of glaciation across Oman, not fully recognized in previous models. Striated glacial pavements provide evidence for two phases of ice advance: a phase of ice sheet advance towards the NE, and a second and probably younger phase where an ice centre localized on the Huqf High flowed towards the SW. The stratigraphy is constrained by previous palynological studies and is subdivided into three units, from oldest to youngest: ‘early’ AKP5, ‘late’ AKP5 and AKP5/P1. ‘Early’ AKP5 palaeogeography is characterized by ice-contact glacial lacustrine and deltaic sedimentary environments along the western margin of the Huqf High. Meltwater discharge flowed into the lake from ice margins located to the east, upon the Huqf High, recorded by progradational delta and fan complexes. ‘Late’ AKP5 palaeogeography is characterized by pro-glacial fluvial-deltaic outwash braidplains that record high-magnitude meltwater discharge from an ice margin located to the SW of the study area. The youngest undifferentiated AKP5/P1 palaeogeography is characterized by re-establishment of ice-contact glaciolacustrine conditions.
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Glaciogenic Reservoirs and Hydrocarbon Systems
Glaciogenic reservoirs and hydrocarbon systems occur intermittently throughout the stratigraphic record, with particular prominence in Neoproterozoic, Late Ordovician, Permo-Carboniferous and Late Cenozoic strata. Recent interest in glaciogenic successions has been fuelled by hydrocarbon discoveries in ancient glaciogenic reservoirs in North Africa, the Middle East, Australia and South America. Glaciogenic deposits of Pleistocene age are noteworthy for their content of groundwater onshore and potentially prospective and/or hazardous gas accumulations offshore. The abundant imprints of Pleistocene glaciations in both hemispheres can be used to reconstruct complex histories of repeated ice cover and retreat, and glacier-bed interactions, thus informing our view on the dynamics of older ice caps and predictions of future glaciations. This volume aims to provide a better understanding of glaciogenic processes, their stratigraphic record and reservoir characteristics of glaciogenic deposits. The book comprises 3 overview papers and 16 original case studies of Neoproterozoic to Pleistocene successions on 6 continents and will be of interest to sedimentologists, glaciologists, geophysicists, hydrologists and petroleum geologists alike.