Using computer simulation to explore the importance of hydrogeology in remote sensing for explosive threat detection
S. E. Howington, J. F. Peters, J. R. Ballard, Jr., O. J. Eslinger, J. R. Fairley, R. V. Kala, R. A. Goodson, S. J. Price, A. M. Hines, L. D. Wakeley, 2012. "Using computer simulation to explore the importance of hydrogeology in remote sensing for explosive threat detection", Military Aspects of Hydrogeology, E. P. F. Rose, J. D. Mather
Download citation file:
Finding explosive threats in complex environments is a challenge. Benign objects (e.g. rocks, plants and rubbish), ground surface variation, heterogeneous soil properties and even shadows can create anomalies in remotely sensed imagery, often triggering false alarms. The overarching goal is to dissect these complex sensor images to extract clues for reducing false alarms and improve threat detection. Of particular interest is the effect of soil properties, particularly hydrogeological properties, on physical temperatures at the ground surface and the signatures they produce in infrared imagery. Hydrogeological variability must be considered at the scale of the sensor's image pixels, which may be only a few centimetres. To facilitate a deeper understanding of the components of the energy distribution, a computational testbed was developed to produce realistic, process-correct, synthetic imagery from remote sensors operating in the visible and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This tool is being used to explore near-surface process interaction at a fine scale to isolate and quantify the phenomena behind the detection physics. The computational tools have confirmed the importance of hydrogeology in the exploitation of sensor imagery for threat detection. However, before this tool's potential becomes a reality, several technical and organizational problems must be overcome.
Figures & Tables
This book, generated under the auspices of the Geological Society of London’s History of Geology and Hydrogeological Groups, contains 20 papers from authors in the UK, USA, Germany and Austria. Historically, it gives examples of the influence of groundwater on battlefield tactics and fortress construction; describes how groundwater was developed for water supply and overcome as an obstacle to military engineering and cross-country vehicular movement by both sides in World Wars I and II; and culminates with examples of the application of hydrogeology to site boreholes in recent conflicts, notably in Afghanistan. Examples of current research described include hydrological model development; the impact of variations in soil moisture on explosive threat detection and cross-country vehicle mobility; contamination arising from defence sites and its remediation; privatization of water supplies; and the equitable allocation of resources derived from an international transboundary aquifer.