Opportunity-driven hydrological model development in US Army research and development programs
Charles W. Downer, Fred L. Ogden, William D. Martin, Russell S. Harmon, 2012. "Opportunity-driven hydrological model development in US Army research and development programs", Military Aspects of Hydrogeology, E. P. F. Rose, J. D. Mather
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The US Army has compelling needs for making hydrological forecasts. These range from tactical predictions of water levels and soil moisture, to strategic protection of both Army and civilian assets and environmental resources. This paper discusses the history of hydrological model development by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as influenced by changes in needs and technologies. It concludes with a description of the Gridded Surface/Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA™) model, a two-dimensional, structured-grid, physics-based hydrological, hydrodynamic, sediment and nutrient/contaminant transport model, developed over the past two decades, that is currently used by the USACE. The surface hydrology of the USA has been divided by the US Geological Survey into 21 major geographic domains that contain either the drainage area of a major river or the combined drainage areas of a series of rivers of similar character developed in one geographic province. Eighteen of the regions occupy the land area of the conterminous USA. Alaska, the Hawaiian Islands and Puerto Rico are separate domains. This approach provides a framework for the hydrological modelling discussed in this paper for sites within six of these regions. That the physics-based GSSHA modelling capability has so far been applied with success gives confidence in its more widespread application.
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This book, generated under the auspices of the Geological Society of London’s History of Geology and Hydrogeological Groups, contains 20 papers from authors in the UK, USA, Germany and Austria. Historically, it gives examples of the influence of groundwater on battlefield tactics and fortress construction; describes how groundwater was developed for water supply and overcome as an obstacle to military engineering and cross-country vehicular movement by both sides in World Wars I and II; and culminates with examples of the application of hydrogeology to site boreholes in recent conflicts, notably in Afghanistan. Examples of current research described include hydrological model development; the impact of variations in soil moisture on explosive threat detection and cross-country vehicle mobility; contamination arising from defence sites and its remediation; privatization of water supplies; and the equitable allocation of resources derived from an international transboundary aquifer.