The origin of fibrous veins: Constraints from geochemistry
Marlina A. Elburg, Paul D. Bons, John Foden, Cees W. Passchier, 2002. "The origin of fibrous veins: Constraints from geochemistry", Deformation Mechanisms, Rheology and Tectonics: Current Status and Future Perspectives, S. de Meer, M. R. Drury, J. H. P. de Bresser, G. M. Pennock
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Several recent studies have suggested that antitaxial fibrous veins may form without fracturing, and not by the commonly invoked crack-seal mechanism. It has also been suggested that such veins would derive their nutrients locally by diffusional transport. This hypothesis was tested on carbonaceous shale-hosted antitaxial fibrous calcite veins from Oppaminda Creek in the northern Flinders Ranges, South Australia. Apart from their fibrous texture, these veins lack the classical features of crack-seal veins, such as wallrock-parallel inclusion bands.
Diffusional transport of locally derived calcite cannot explain all major and trace element data of the veins and their adjacent wallrock and indicate that part of the calcite was transported over distances of at least >decimetres, probably ≫100m. Sr isotopic fingerprinting shows that an external fluid that carried radiogenic Sr must have percolated through the system. Fluid flow was pervasive as there is no evidence that this fluid preferentially percolated through the veins. Our data support the view that antitaxial fibrous veins of the type found at Oppaminda Creek grew in the absence of fractures, but show that such veins do not necessarily indicate local diffusional transport. Our data confirm a recently postulated basin-wide fluid flow event around 586 Ma that is probably related to copper mineralization in the area.
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The motion and deformation of rocks are processes of fundamental importance in shaping the Earth, from outer crustal layers to the deep mantle. Reconstructions of the evolution of the Earth therefore require detailed knowledge of the geometry of deformation structures and their relative timing, of the motions leading to deformation structures and of the mechanisms governing these motions. This volume contains a collection of 22 papers on field, experimental and theoretical studies that add to our knowledge of these processes. They are a mixture of review papers oh selected topics in the field of structural geology and tectonics and papers on current issues and new techniques and are grouped into four themes:
The effect of fluids on deformation
The interpretation of microstructures and textures
Deformation mechanisms and rheology of crust and upper mantle minerals
Crust and lithosphere tectonics
The volume will appeal to researchers in the fields of structural geology and tectonophysics, both in academia and industry.